How do computers work on the Internet?

There are hundreds of millions of computers across the internet. But not everyone does the same thing. Some of these computers only collect information and send any information from where it is requested. And these machines are called servers. The machines that store any documents are called file servers. The servers that contain your mail, are called mail servers. And the servers that contain web pages are called web servers. There are several million servers on the Internet.

The computers that collect data from the server are called client computers. When you enter the Internet to check mail, your computer is the client, your ISP (Internet Service Provider) is the server and the mail comes from the mail server. The number of clients on the internet is more than the number of servers, almost billion.

When two computers are interacting with each other, it is called Peers. If you instant messaging or share photos with your friend, then this is peer-to-peer (P2P) communication. Never behave as a computer client on PC-P and sometimes your computer server behaves as well. Suppose you have sent a photo to your friend, then your computer acts as a server (photo sets). And your friend's computer will work as a client (photos will be accessed). Once your friend sends the photo, he will serve as a computer server (photo sets) and your computer will now serve as a client (access photos).

Apart from just server and client, there is another middle computer which is another part of the Internet. And its name is Router. It only helps to connect between different systems. If there are more than one computer in your home or school or office, then the router will help everyone connect with the Internet.

What is TCP/IP and DNS ?
The real thing to share the data on the Internet is that it is not easy to carry any home brick envelope. Internet data is not possible by any person such as you or I can control. There are numerous data transmissions in the net every day - drafting approximately 3 billion emails and lots of traffic to download and upload various data across 250 million websites in the world. Now the question is, if all of these data are sent as packets and if there is no control, then how can they reach the original destination without losing these packets?

And the answer is  (TCP / IP) or Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. This system only allows all packets to be delivered to the destination. You can say it is a two-in-one system. In the computer world, "protocol" means a standard that everyone believes and all things are sure to reach. Now the question arises in your mind that what does TCP / IP actually work? Let's know that.

Internet Protocol or IP is a simple addressing system. All the machines in the internet have a different IP in your house. When every machine has separate IP, then which machine is easily identified and it is possible to send packets accordingly. IP addresses are basically inserted in some numbers. And the numbers are separated by using commas or colons.

This is a bit different for the website. The name is used to easily remember the IP rather than the website. Such as ( The name of this system is DNS or domain name server. After entering the domain name browser, the computer starts searching for this IP and when the IP is found, the site is opened from the web server.

The IP is basically of two types. One is IPv4 and another IPv6. There is a four-digit digit in IPv4. Such as or But today there are no new IPv4 addresses in the fast growing Internet world. So a new system was developed which is named IPV6. It is much longer than the IPv4. 123a: b716: 7291: 0da2: 912c: 0321: 0ffe: 1da2 is an example of IPv6.

Another part of this control system is the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). This system determines how to send packets to one IP from one IP to another. And this system brings together packaged packets. Again, when the packet is sold, a packet is lost and the re-sold it again.

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